The authors of the GATT probably focused on the potential benefits of a European customs union that would promote integration. Some historians claim that U.S. negotiators also presented a possible free trade agreement between the United States and Canada that would remove trade barriers in North America. In addition, a number of economists argue that government intervention can be effective in promoting a particular sector, but that macroeconomic industrial policies that benefit the economy as a whole are not effective. In any event, Western economists and policy makers today reject almost everywhere the idea that the United States should pursue an industrial policy that chooses winners and losers. Opponents of a possible U.S. industrial policy argue that such a policy would be subject to political pressure under the U.S. system that would guarantee failure. The benefits of unilateral removal of trade barriers are particularly beneficial in cases where the country does not produce the product; in these cases, removing barriers to trade broadens consumer choice. (However, as noted above, an exception appears in situations where removing a trade barrier for a raw material or component not produced by the land increases the effective protection rate of the finished product.) Many opponents of globalization oppose free trade, based on their assertion that free trade agreements generally do not increase the economic freedom of the poor or working class and often impoverish them. Most countries in the world are members of the World Trade Organization, which somehow removes borders, but not tariffs and other barriers to trade. Most countries are also members of regional free trade zones that remove barriers to trade between participating countries. The European Union and the United States are negotiating a transatlantic trade and investment partnership.
Originally led by the United States, twelve countries bordering the Pacific Ocean are currently engaged in private negotiations on the Trans-Pacific Partnership, which has been seen by negotiating countries as a free trade policy.  In January 2017, President Donald Trump withdrew the United States from the Trans-Pacific Partnership negotiations.  The reason for these significant deviations from the original model is that the modern world of free trade is so different from the original historical framework of free trade models. Today, no one has clearly determined the best economic outcome on the basis of national natural advantages. Today`s global economy has not achieved the best result from international competition, where each country serves the best interests of the world by producing precisely the products it is naturally most efficient to produce. On the contrary, there are many possible outcomes that depend on what countries actually do, what capabilities they actually develop, natural or human capacities.  The Ottoman Empire had until the 18th century a liberal policy of free trade, originating from the capitulations of the Ottoman Empire, which dated back to the first trade agreements signed with France in 1536 and continued in 1673 with capitulations, 1740, thus reducing tariffs on imports and exports to only 3% and in 1790.