third-party technologies are limited, for example, by .B cumulative effect of parallel networks of similar anti-competitive agreements that prohibit takers from using third-party technologies; “exclusive customer group,” a group of customers to whom only a party to the technology transfer contract is authorized to actively sell contract products manufactured with the technology granted. Technology transfer agreements beyond these market share thresholds cannot be considered to fall within the scope of Article 101, paragraph 1, of the Treaty. For example, exclusive licensing agreements between non-competing companies often fall outside the scope of Article 101, paragraph 1. Nor can it be considered that technology transfer agreements within the scope of Article 101, paragraph 1, do not meet the exemption requirements beyond these market share thresholds. However, they cannot be considered to generally provide objective benefits of a large nature and size to compensate for the disadvantages they cause for competition. In summary, in comparable texts on publishing contracts, the term Umowa wydawnicza is functionally equivalent to that of a publication contract. any obligation, direct or indirect, of one party not to question the validity of the intellectual property rights held by the other party in the Union, without prejudice to the possibility of providing, in the case of an exclusive licence, the termination of the technology transfer contract if the taker challenges the validity of one of the technological rights granted. the licensee`s obligation to manufacture contract products for a particular customer in a non-reciprocal agreement only if the licence has been granted in order to create another source of supply for that customer; Benton, L. and K.H. Porter. 2013.
The publishing contract. Kindle Edition. The objective of the study was to assess the impact of machine translation systems on the translation process, focusing on translation errors and other language problems. Three standard clauses in the contracts were selected as general and three clauses typical of copyright agreements. A very high degree of wording and the repeatability of whole sentences are characteristic of typical contractual clauses. The other clauses, the copyright clauses, are characterized by a low degree of convention, as only certain phrases can be considered common characteristics.