Funded adaptation projects aim to reduce the vulnerability of an estimated 15 million people while introducing management practices that are more resilient to climate change on more than 5 million hectares of productive and natural landscapes. It is important that current investments in the development of climate change information technology provide a greater area of adaptation by providing more than 600,000 people with different forms of adaptation training, which strengthen hydrometeorological and climate information services in more than 70 countries and provide technical assistance to help more than 80 countries integrate climate risks and adapt to important planning and climate processes policy planning at the national level and in various vulnerable sectors. According to the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), temperatures are expected to rise by 3.2oC by the end of the 21st century, based solely on the current climate commitments of the Paris Agreement. To limit the increase in global temperature to 1.5 degrees Celsius, annual emissions must be below 25 Gigaton (Gt) by 2030. With the current commitments of November 2019, emissions by 2030 will be 56 Gt CO2e, twice the environmental target. To limit the increase in global temperature to 1.5 degrees Celsius, an annual reduction in emissions of 7.6% is needed between 2020 and 2030. The four main emitters (China, the United States, the EU-27 and India) have contributed more than 55% of total emissions over the past decade, excluding emissions due to land use changes such as deforestation. China`s emissions increased by 1.6% in 2018 to a peak of 13.7 Gt CO2 equivalent. U.S. emissions account for 13% of global emissions and emissions have increased by 2.5% in 2018. EU emissions, which account for 8.5% of global emissions, have fallen by 1% per year over the past decade.
Emissions fell by 1.3% in 2018. In 2018, 7% of India`s global emissions increased by 5.5%, but its per capita emissions are one of the lowest in the G20.  At COP21, the parties promoted parity by adopting the Paris Agreement, which treats mitigation, adaptation, loss and damage equally. From a structural point of view, the Paris Agreement adopts a combined approach to the top-down and bottom-up procedure, which naturally promotes adaptation, loss and damage activities. On August 4, 2017, the Trump administration officially announced to the United Nations that the United States intends to withdraw from the Paris Agreement as soon as it is legally entitled to it.  The formal declaration of resignation could not be submitted until after the agreement for the United States came into force on November 4, 2019 for a three-year date.   On November 4, 2019, the U.S. government filed the withdrawal notice with the Secretary-General of the United Nations, custodian of the agreement, and formally withdrew from the Paris Agreement a year later, when the withdrawal came into effect.  After the November 2020 elections, President-elect Joe Biden promised to reinstate the United States in the Paris Agreement for his first day in office and renew the U.S. commitment to climate change mitigation.   The losses and damage caused by the Paris Agreement were one of the most controversial topics of COP21.
Developed and developing countries debated whether losses and damages should be included in the decision or agreement and whether they should be organized as part of adaptation or as independent articles.